Mishnah avot 5-8
1- THE SWORD COMES TO THE WORLD FOR THE RETARDATION OF JUDGMENT, AND FOR THE PERVERSION OF JUDGMENT, AND ON ACCOUNT OF THOSE WHO INTERPRET THE TORAH NOT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE ACCEPTED LAW
‘To the ‘Amidah prayer’. Whence is this derived? — As it has been taught: ‘Simeon the Pakulite5 formulated eighteen blessings in the presence of Rabban Gamaliel in the proper6 order in Jabneh.7 R. Johanan said (others report, it was stated in a Baraitha): A hundred and twenty elders, among whom were many prophets, drew up eighteen blessings in a fixed order’.
Our Rabbis taught: Whence do we derive that the blessing of the Patriarchs8 should be said? Because it says, Ascribe unto the Lord, O ye sons of might.9 And whence that we say the blessing of mighty deeds?10 Because it says, Ascribe unto the Lord glory and strength.11 And whence that we say sanctifications?12 Because it says, Ascribe unto the Lord the glory due unto His name, worship the Lord in the beauty of holiness.13 What reason had they for mentioning understanding14 after holiness? Because it says, They shall sanctify the Holy One of Jacob and shall stand in awe of the God of Israel,15 and next to this, They also that err in spirit shall come to understanding. What reason had they for mentioning repentance16 after understanding? Because it is written, Lest they, understanding with their heart, return and be healed.17 If that is the reason, healing should be mentioned next to repentance?18 — Do not imagine such a thing, since it is written, And let him return unto the Lord and He will have compassion upon him, and to our God, for he will abundantly pardon.19 But why should you rely upon this verse? Rely rather on the other! — There is written another verse, Who forgiveth all thine iniquity, who healeth all thy diseases, who redeemeth thy life from the pit,20 which implies that redemption and healing come after forgiveness. But it is written, ‘Lest they return and be healed’? That refers not to the healing of sickness but to the healing [power] of forgiveness. What was their reason for mentioning redemption in the seventh blessing?21 Raba replied: Because they [Israel] are destined to be redeemed in the seventh year [of the coming of the Messiah],22 therefore the mention of redemption was placed in the seventh blessing. But a Master has said, ‘In the sixth year will be thunderings, in the seventh wars, at the end of the seventh the son of David will come’? — War is also the beginning of redemption. What was their reason for mentioning healing in the eighth blessing? — R. Aha said: Because circumcision which requires healing is appointed for the eighth day, therefore it was placed in the eighth blessing. What was their reason for placing the [prayer for the] blessing of the years ninth? R. Alexandri said: This was directed against those who raise the market price [of foodstuffs], as it is written, Break thou the arm of the wicked; and when David said this, he said it in the ninth Psalm.23
What was their reason for mentioning the gathering of the exiles after the blessing of the years? — Because it is written, But ye, O mountains of Israel, ye shall shoot forth your branches and yield your fruit to thy people Israel, for they are at hand to come.24 And when the exiles are assembled, judgment will be visited on the wicked, as it says, And I will turn my hand upon thee and purge away thy dross as with lye,25 and it is written further, And I will restore thy judges as at the first.26 And when judgment is visited on the wicked, transgressors cease,27 and presumptuous sinners28 are included with them, as it is written, But the destruction of the transgressors and of the sinners shall be together, and they that forsake the Lord shall be consumed.29 And when the transgressors have disappeared, the horn of the righteous is exalted,30 as it is written, All the horns of the wicked also will I cut off, but the horns of the righteous shall be lifted up.31 And ‘proselytes of righteousness’32 are included with the righteous, as it says, thou shalt rise up before the hoary head and honour the face of the old man,33 and the text goes on, And if a stranger sojourn with thee. And where is the horn of the righteous exalted? In Jerusalem,34 as it says, Pray for the peace of Jerusalem, may they prosper that love thee.35 And when Jerusalem is built, David36 will come, as it says. Afterwards shall the children of Israel return and seek the Lord their God, and David their king.1 And when David comes, prayer2 will come, as it says. Even then will I bring to my holy mountain, and make them joyful in my house of prayer.3 And when prayer has come, the Temple service4 will come, as it says, Their burnt-offerings and their sacrifices shall be acceptable upon mine altar.5 And when the service comes, thanksgiving6 will come, as it says. Whoso offereth the sacrifice of thanksgiving honoureth me.7 What was their reason for inserting the priestly benediction after thanksgiving? Because it is written, And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and he came down from offering the sin-offering and the burnt-offering and the peace-offerings.8 But cannot I say that he did this before the service? — Do not imagine such a thing. For it is written, ‘and he came down from offering’. Is it written ‘to offer’? It is written, ‘from offering’.9 Why not then say it [the priestly benediction] after the [blessing of] the Temple service? — Do not imagine such a thing, since it is written, whoso offereth the sacrifice of thankgiving.10 Why base yourself upon this verse? Why not upon the other? — It is reasonable to regard service and thanksgiving as one. What was their reason for having ‘give peace’ said after the priestly benediction? — Because it is written, So they [the priests] shall put my name upon the children of Israel, and [then] I shall bless them;11 and the blessing of the Holy One, blessed be He, is peace, as it says, The Lord shall bless his people with peace.
En ce temps-là, deux femmes de mauvaise vie vinrent se présenter devant le roi. 17 Et l'une de ces femmes dit "Ecoute-moi, Seigneur! Moi et cette femme nous habitons la même maison; j'y ai donné naissance à un enfant, étant avec elle. 18 Trois jours après ma délivrance, cette femme a également accouché. Or, nous vivons ensemble, nul étranger n'habite avec nous la maison, nous deux seules y demeurons. 19 Pendant la nuit, l'enfant de cette femme est mort, parce qu'elle s'était couchée sur lui. 20 Mais elle s'est levée au milieu de la nuit, a enlevé mon fils d'auprès de moi, tandis que ta servante était endormie, l'a couchée sur son sein, et son fils qui était mort, elle l'a déposé entre mes bras. 21 Comme je me disposais, le matin, à allaiter mon enfant, voici, il était mort! Je l'examinai attentivement quand il fit grand jour, et ce n'était pas là le fils que j'avais enfanté. 22 Non pas! dit l'autre femme, mon fils est vivant, et c'est le tien qui est mort! Point du tout, reprit la première, c'est le tien qui est mort, celui qui vit est le mien!" C'est ainsi qu'elles discutaient devant le roi. 23 Le roi dit alors: "L'une dit: Cet enfant qui vit est le mien, et c'est le tien qui est mort; l'autre dit: Non, c'est le tien qui est mort, celui qui vit est le mien." 24 Le roi ajouta: "Apportez-moi un glaive;" et l'on présenta un glaive au roi. 25 Et le roi dit: "Coupez en deux parts l'enfant vivant, et donnez-en une moitié à l'une de ces femmes, une moitié à l'autre." 26 La mère de l'enfant vivant, dont les entrailles étaient émues de pitié pour son fils, s'écria, parlant au roi: "De grâce, seigneur! Qu'on lui donne l'enfant vivant, qu'on ne le fasse pas mourir!" Mais l'autre disait: "Ni toi ni moi ne l'aurons: coupez!" 27 Le roi reprit alors la parole et dit: "Donnez-lui l'enfant vivant et gardez-vous de le faire mourir: celle-ci est sa mère." 28 Tout Israël eut connaissance du jugement que le roi avait rendu, et ils furent saisis de respect pour le roi; car ils comprirent qu'une sagesse divine l'inspirait dans l'exercice de la justice.
Baba metsiah 2 a
MISHNAH. TWO [PERSONS APPEARING BEFORE A COURT] HOLD A GARMENT.1 ONE OF THEM SAYS, 'I FOUND IT', AND THE OTHER SAYS, 'I FOUND IT'; ONE OF THEM SAYS, 'IT IS ALL MINE', AND THE OTHER SAYS, 'IT IS ALL MINE', THEN THE ONE SHALL SWEAR THAT HIS SHARE IN IT IS NOT LESS THAN HALF, AND THE OTHER SHALL SWEAR THAT HIS SHARE IN IT IS NOT LESS THAN HALF, AND [THE VALUE OF THE GARMENT] SHALL THEN BE DIVIDED BETWEEN THEM
Baba batra 34a
There was a certain river boat about which two men were disputing.1 One said, 'It is mine', and the other said, 'It is mine. One of them went to the Beth din and appealed to them: 'Attach the boat2 until I bring witnesses to prove that it belongs to me.' [In such a case] should we attach the boat or not?3 R. Huna says we should attach it,4 and Rab Judah says we should not.5 [The Beth din having attached the boat],6 the man went to look for his witnesses but did not find them, whereupon he requested the Beth din to release the boat, leaving it to the stronger to obtain possession.7 In such a case should we release or not? Rab Judah says we should not release,8 R. Papa says we should release.9 The accepted ruling is that we should not attach in the first instance, but if we have attached we should not release.10
תוספות מסכת בבא מציעא דף ב עמוד א
ויחלוקו - תימה דמאי שנא מההיא דארבא דאמר כל דאלים גבר פרק חזקת הבתים (ב"ב דף לד: ושם) וי"ל דאוחזין שאני דחשיב כאילו כל אחד יש לו בה בודאי החצי דאנן סהדי דמאי דתפיס האי דידיה הוא וכן במנה שלישי דמדמי בגמרא לטלית חשיב ההוא שהנפקד תופס בחזקת שניהם כאילו הם עצמם מוחזקים בו לכך משני דהתם ודאי דחד מינייהו הוא ואין החלוקה יכולה להיות אמת ולכך יהא מונח אבל טלית דאיכא למימר דתרוייהו הוא יחלוקו.
Quelle est la difference entre le cas de la Mishnah et celui des bateaux dans le traite de baba batra ? dans le cas des bateaux le partage ne peut pas etre juste alors que dans le cas de la mishnah il peut etre juste si les deux ont trouve le talith au meme moment
R. Eleazar said: The Holy Spirit manifested itself in three places; at the Tribunal of Shem,26 at the Tribunal of Samuel of Ramah, and at the Tribunal of Solomon. At the Tribunal of Shem,27 as it is
written, And Judah acknowledged them,28 and he said, She is right, it is from me.29 How did he know [for certain]? Maybe, just as he had come to [consort with] her, some other man had come to [consort with] her? [But] it was a Bath Kol30 that came forth and said, ‘She is right, constrained by Me these things came about.’31
‘At the Tribunal of Samuel,’32 — as it is written, Here I am; witness against me before the Lord and before His anointed, whose ox have I taken? or whose ass . . . and they said, Thou hast not defrauded us nor oppressed us, neither hast thou taken aught of any man's hand. And he said unto them, The Lord is witness against you and His anointed is witness this day that ye have not found aught in my hand,’ and He33 said, [He is] witness.34 ‘And He said’; should it not be ‘And they said’? [But] it was a Bath Kol that came forth and said, ‘I am witness in this matter.’
‘At the Tribunal of Solomon,’ — as it is said, And the king answered and said, Give her the living child, and in no wise slay it; she is his mother:35 ‘She is his mother’; whence knew he [for certain]? Maybe, she had been acting craftily? [But] it was a Bath Kol that came forth and said, ‘She is his mother’.
Said Raba: How [can we be sure of this?] Maybe Judah had reckoned the days and months and found them to coincide,36 — for what we see we may presume; but we presume not what we see not.37 Again, Samuel may have taken all Israel collectively, using the singular38 expression [verb], as it is written [elsewhere]: O Israel, thou art saved by the Lord with an everlasting salvation, Ye shall not be ashamed?39 And Solomon likewise, because he saw one woman was compassionate and the other was not compassionate! Only [of course], these [interpretations] are points of traditional lore.