MISHNAH. AT FOUR SEASONS [DIVINE] JUDGMENT IS PASSED ON THE WORLD:1 AT PASSOVER IN RESPECT OF PRODUCE; AT PENTECOST IN RESPECT OF FRUIT; AT NEW YEAR ALL CREATURES PASS BEFORE HIM [GOD] LIKE CHILDREN OF MARON,2 AS IT SAYS, ‘HE THAT FASHIONETH THE HEART OF THEM ALL, THAT CONSIDERETH ALL THEIR DOINGS’;3 AND ON TABERNACLES JUDGMENT IS PASSED IN RESPECT OF RAIN.
GEMARA. Which produce is referred to? Shall I say, the produce which is already grown?4 If so, then when were the hardships decreed which it has already suffered? It must be then the produce which is to be sown later.5 You assume then that only one judgment is passed. But it has been taught: ‘If some calamity or misfortune6 happens to produce before Passover, it is in virtue of a judgment passed on the previous Passover, if after Passover, of a judgment passed at the Passover which has just gone.7 If a calamity or misfortune happens to a man before the Day of Atonement, it is in virtue of a judgment passed on the last Day of Atonement, if just after the Day of Atonement, of a judgment passed on the one just gone’! — Raba replied: This shows that two judgments are passed on the produce.8 Abaye remarked: Therefore if a man sees that the slow-maturing seed9 is doing well he should sow the quick-maturing seed10 in good time, so that it may be well grown before the time comes to judge it.11
It has been taught: R. Judah said in the name of R. Akiba: Why did the Torah enjoin on us to offeran ‘Omer on Passover? Because Passover is the season of produce. Therefore the Holy One, blessed be He, said, Bring before Me an ‘Omer’ on Passover so that your produce in the fields may be blessed.23
En ce temps-là, l'Eternel dit à Josué: "Munis-toi de couteaux tranchants, et fais subir une nouvelle circoncision aux enfants d'Israël." 3 Et Josué se munit de couteaux tranchants, et il circoncit les Israélites près de la colline des Araloth. 4 Or, voici pourquoi Josué dut pratiquer cette circoncision. Toute la population mâle, propre à la guerre, qui était sortie d'Egypte, était morte dans le désert, sur la route qu'elle suivit après la sortie de l'Egypte. 5 Toute cette population affranchie avait subi la circoncision; mais tous ceux qui naquirent dans le désert, pendant la traversée, après la sortie d'Egypte, on ne les avait point circoncis. 6 Car les Israélites avaient, pendant quarante ans, fait leurs pérégrinations dans le désert, jusqu'à ce que fût éteinte toute la génération des hommes valides sortis de l'Egypte, de ces hommes qui n'avaient pas obéi à la voix du Seigneur, et à qui le Seigneur avait juré de ne pas laisser voir le pays qu'il avait promis à leurs pères de nous donner, ce pays ruisselant de lait et de miel. 7 Mais il adopta leurs fils à leur place, et ce furent ceux-là que circoncit Josué; car ils étaient incirconcis, vu qu'on n'avait pu les circoncire pendant le voyage. 8 Lorsque tout le peuple eut été circoncis, ils demeurèrent en repos dans le camp jusqu'à leur guérison. 9 L'Eternel dit à Josué: "A présent, j'ai écarté de vous l'ignominie de l'Egypte!" Et l'on donna à cet endroit le nom de Ghilgal, qu'il a conservé jusqu'à ce jour. 10 Les Israélites, campés à Ghilgal, célébrèrent la Pâque le quatorzième jour du mois, vers le soir, dans les plaines de Jéricho. 11 Et le lendemain de la Pâque, ce même jour, ils mangèrent du blé du pays, en pains azymes et en grains torréfiés. 12 La manne cessa de tomber le lendemain, parce qu'ils avaient à manger du blé du pays, et les enfants d'Israël n'eurent plus de manne, mais ils se nourrirent, dès cette année, des produits du pays de Canaan
Et le peuple emporta sa pâte non encore levée, leurs sébiles sur l'épaule, enveloppées dans leurs manteaux. 35 Les enfants d'Israël s'étaient conformés à la parole de Moïse, en demandant aux Égyptiens des vases d'argent, des vases d'or et des vêtements 36 et le Seigneur avait inspiré pour ce peuple de la bienveillance aux Égyptiens, qui lui prêtèrent, de sorte qu'il dépouilla les Égyptiens.
Three returned to their original home, Israel, Egypt's wealth, and the writing of the Tables. Israel, as we have said. Egypt's wealth, as it is written, And it came to pass in the fifth year of King Rehoboam, that Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem; and he took away the treasurers of the house of the Lord.38 The writing of the Tables, for it is written, and I broke them before your eyes.39 It was taught: The Tables were broken, yet the Letters flew up.40
It was taught, R. Eleazar ha-Kappar said: Let one always pray to be spared this fate [poverty], for if he does not descend [to poverty] his son will, and if not his son, his grandson, for it is said, because that for [bi-gelal] this thing, [etc.].20 The School of R. Ishmael taught: It is a wheel [galal] that revolves in the world.21 R. Joseph said: We hold [as tradition] that a Rabbinical student will not suffer poverty. But we see that he does suffer poverty? Even if he suffers poverty, he [nevertheless] does not engage in begging.22 R. Hiyya said to his wife: When a poor man comes, be quick to offer him bread, so that others may be quick to offer it to your children. You curse them! she exclaimed. A verse is written, he replied: 'because that for [bi-gelal] this thing', whereon the School of R. Ishmael taught: It is a wheel that revolves in the world. It was taught R. Gamaliel Beribbi23 said: And he shall give24 thee mercy, and have compassion upon thee, and multiply thee:25 he Who is merciful to others, mercy is shown to him by Heaven, while he who is not merciful to others, mercy is not shown to him by Heaven.26
Baba batra 74a
He said unto me: 'Come, I will show you the men of Korah that were swallowed up.17 I saw two cracks that emitted smoke. I took a piece of clipped wool, dipped it in water, attached it to the point of a spear and let it in there. And when I took it out it was singed. [Thereupon] he said unto me: 'Listen attentively [to] what you [are about to] hear.' And I heard them say: 'Moses and his Torah are truth and we18 are liars.' He said unto me: 'Every thirty days Gehenna19 causes them to turn back here as [one turns] flesh in a pot,20 and they say thus: "Moses and his law are truth and we18 are liars".'
He said unto me: 'Come, I will show you where heaven and earth touch one another.'21 I took up my [bread] basket and placed it in a window of heaven. When I concluded my prayers I looked for it but did not find it. I said unto him: 'Are there thieves here?' He replied to me: 'It is the heavenly wheel revolving. Wait here until tomorrow and you will find it.'
Our Rabbis taught: The Sages of Israel maintain: The Galgal [‘Wheel sphere’ probably the celestial sphere,) is stationary [fixed], while the mazzaloth7 revolve; while the Sages of the nations of the world maintain: The Galgal revolves and the mazzaloth are stationary.8 ([This will probably represent the Ptolemaic view according to which the stars are fixed on the surface of the celestial sphere which moves round the earth carrying the stars with it, v. op. cit. p. 71.] Rabbi observed: This disproves their view [viz.,] we never find the Wain in the south or Scorpio in the north.9 (But if the Galgal revolves, the mazzaloth too would change their position. The view of the Jewish Sages is difficult to Explain) To this R. Aha b. Jacob demurred: Perhaps it is like the pivot10 of a millstone,11 or like the door socket?
R. Judah said: There are two firmaments, for it is said: Behold, unto the Lord thy God belongeth heaven, and the heaven of heavens.18 Resh Lakish said: [There are] seven, namely, Wilon,19 Rakia’,20 Shehakim,21 Zebul,22 Ma'on,23 Makon,24 ‘Araboth.25 Wilon serves no purpose except that it enters in the morning and goes forth in the evening26 and renews every day the work of creation, for it is said: That stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain,27 and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in.28 Rakia’ is that in which sun and moon, stars and constellations are set, for it is said: And God set them29 in the firmament [Rakia’] of the heaven.30 Shehakim is that in which millstones stand and grind31 manna for the righteous for it is said: And He commanded the skies [Shehakim] above, and opened the doors of heaven; and He caused manna to rain upon them for food etc.32
R. Shizbi said in the name of R. Eleazar b. ‘Azariah: A man's sustenance is as difficult [to provide] as the dividing of the Red Sea, for it is written, Who giveth food to a flesh,21 and near it, To Him who divided the Red Sea in sunder.22
R. Samuel b. R. Isaac said: When Resh Lakish began to expound [the subject of] Sotah, he spoke thus: They only pair a woman with a man according to his deeds;17 as it is said: For the sceptre of wickedness shall not rest upon the lot of the righteous.18 Rabbah b. Bar Hanah said in the name of R. Johanan: It is as difficult to pair them as was the division of the Red Sea; as it is said: God setteth the solitary in families: He bringeth out the prisoners into prosperity!1
Quand Israël sortit de l’Egypte, la maison de Jacob du milieu d’un peuple à la langue barbare, 2 Juda devint son sanctuaire, Israël, le domaine de son empire. 3 La mer le vit et se mit à fuir, le Jourdain retourna en arrière,