©2018 by Uriel Aviges.

  • Rav Uriel Aviges

Chemot 5776



Les documents

Chapitre 9 halaha 1

Six precepts were commanded to Adam:

a) the prohibition against worship of false gods;

b) the prohibition against cursing God;

c) the prohibition against murder;

d) the prohibition against incest and adultery;

e) the prohibition against theft;

f) the command to establish laws and courts of justice.

Even though we have received all of these commands from Moses and, furthermore, they are concepts which intellect itself tends to accept, it appears from the Torah's words that Adam was commanded concerning them.

The prohibition against eating flesh from a living animal was added for Noah, as Genesis 9:4 states: 'Nevertheless, you may not eat flesh with its life, which is its blood.' Thus there are seven mitzvot.

These matters remained the same throughout the world until Abraham. When Abraham arose, in addition to these, he was commanded regarding circumcision. He also ordained the morning prayers.

Isaac separated tithes and ordained an additional prayer service before sunset. Jacob added the prohibition against eating the sciatic nerve. He also ordained the evening prayers. In Egypt, Amram was commanded regarding other mitzvot. Ultimately, Moses came and the Torah was completed by him.

Before the Torah was given, when a man would meet a woman in the marketplace and he and she decided to marry, he would bring her home, conduct relations in private and thus make her his wife. Once the Torah was given, the Jews were commanded that when a man desires to marry a woman, he must acquire her as a wife in the presence of witnesses. [Only] after this, does she become his wife. This is [alluded to in Deuteronomy 22:13]: "When a man takes a wife and has relations with her...."

Or, il y avait un homme de la famille de Lévi, qui avait épousé une fille de Lévi. 2 Cette femme conçut et enfanta un fils. Elle considéra qu'il était beau et le tint caché pendant trois mois. 3 Ne pouvant le cacher plus longtemps, elle lui prépara un berceau de jonc qu'elle enduisit de bitume et de poix, elle y plaça l'enfant et le déposa dans les roseaux sur la rive du fleuve. 4

Rashi

Il prit la fille de Léwi Il s’était séparé d’elle à cause du décret de Pharaon. Il l’a ensuite reprise pour femme [ainsi qu’il ressort du mot wayélèkh (« il alla »)], elle-même ayant retrouvé une nouvelle jeunesse. Elle avait alors cent trente ans, puisqu’elle était née « entre les remparts » au moment où Israël est entré en Egypte (voir Rachi sur Beréchith 46, 15). Or, leur séjour en Egypte a duré deux cent dix ans, et Mochè en avait quatre-vingts lorsqu’ils en sont sortis. Elle avait donc cent trente ans lorsqu’elle lui a donné naissance, d’où l’expression : « fille de Léwi » [qui marque une idée de jeunesse] (Sota 12a, Baba Batra 119b).

Berahot 10 a

Isaiah said: Let Hezekiah come to me, for so we find that Jehoram son of Ahab went to Elisha.33  What did the Holy One, blessed be He, do? He brought sufferings upon Hezekiah and then said to Isaiah, Go visit the sick. For so it says, In those days was Hezekiah sick unto death. And Isaiah the prophet, son of Amoz, came to him and said unto him, Thus saith the Lord, Set thy house in order, for thou shalt die and not live34  etc. What is the meaning of 'thou shalt die and not live'? Thou shalt die in this world and not live in the world to come. He said to him: Why so bad? He replied: Because you did not try to have children. He said: The reason was because I saw by the holy spirit that the children issuing from me would not be virtuous. He said to him: What have you to do with the secrets of the All-Merciful? You should have done what you were commanded, and let the Holy One, blessed be He, do that which pleases Him. He said to him: Then give me now your daughter; perhaps through your merit and mine combined virtuous children will issue from me. He replied:35  The doom has already been decreed. Said the other: Son of Amoz, finish your prophecy and go. This tradition I have from the house of my ancestor:36  Even if a sharp sword rests upon a man's neck he should not desist from prayer.37  This saying is also recorded in the names of R. Johanan and R. Eleazar: Even if a sharp sword rests on a man's neck, he should not desist from prayer, as it says, Though He slay me, yet will I trust in Him. [Similarly] R. Hanan said: Even if the master of dreams1  says to a man that on the morrow he will die, he should not desist from prayer, for so it says, For in the multitude of dreams are vanities and also many words, but fear thou God.2  Thereupon straightway, Hezekiah turned his face to the kir [wall] and prayed unto the Lord.3  What is the meaning of 'kir'? — R. Simeon b. Lakish said: [He prayed] from the innermost cham bers [kiroth] of his heart, as it says, My bowels, my bowels, I writhe in pain! Kiroth [The chambers] of my heart etc.4

Taanith 11

Resh Lakish said: A man may not have marital relations during years of famine, as it is said, And unto Joseph were born two sons before the year of famine came.

Baba batra 60b

It has been taught: R. Ishmael ben Elisha said: Since the day of the destruction of the Temple we should by rights bind ourselves not to eat meat nor drink wine, only we do not lay a hardship on the community unless the majority can endure it. And from the day that a Government has come into power which issues cruel decrees against us and forbids to us the observance of the Torah and the precepts21  and does not allow us to enter into the 'week of the son'22  (according to another version, 'the salvation of the son'),23  we ought by rights to bind ourselves not to marry and beget children, and the seed of Abraham our father would come to an end of itself. However, let Israel go their way: it is better that they should err in ignorance than presumptuously.24

Début de la parasha

Voici les noms des fils d'Israël, venus en Égypte; ils y accompagnèrent Jacob, chacun avec sa famille: 2 Ruben, Siméon, Lévi et Juda; 3 Issachar, Zabulon et Benjamin; 4 Dan et Nephtali, Gad et Aser. 5

Le roi d'Égypte s'adressa aux sages femmes hébreues, qui se nommaient, l'une Chifra, l'autre Poûa 16 et il dit: "Lorsque vous accoucherez les femmes hébreues, vous examinerez les attributs du sexe: si c'est un garçon, faites-le périr; une fille, qu'elle vive." 17 Mais les sages-femmes craignaient Dieu: elles ne firent point ce que leur avait dit le roi d'Égypte, elles laissèrent vivre les garçons. 18 Le roi d'Égypte manda les sages-femmes et leur dit: "Pourquoi avez-vous agi ainsi, avez-vous laissé vivre les garçons?" 19 Les sages-femmes répondirent à Pharaon: "C'est que les femmes des Hébreux ne sont pas comme celles des Égyptiens, elles sont vigoureuses et avant que la sage-femme soit arrivée près d'elles, elles sont délivrées." 20 Le Seigneur bénit les sages-femmes et le peuple multiplia et s'accrut considérablement. 21 Or, comme les sages-femmes avaient craint le Seigneur et qu'il avait augmenté leurs familles, 22 Pharaon donna l'ordre suivant à tout son peuple: "Tout mâle nouveau-né, jetez-le dans le fleuve et toute fille laissez-la vivre."

Exode 3 6

alors Dieu l'appela du sein du buisson, disant: "Moïse! Moïse!" Et il répondit: "Me voici." 5 Il reprit: "N'approche point d'ici! Ote ta chaussure, car l'endroit que tu foules est un sol sacré!" 6 Il ajouta: "Je suis la Divinité de ton père, le Dieu d'Abraham, d'Isaac et de Jacob..." Moïse se couvrit le visage, craignant de regarder le Seigneur. 7 L'Éternel poursuivit: "J'ai vu, j'ai vu l'humiliation de mon peuple qui est en Égypte; j'ai accueilli sa plainte contre ses oppresseurs, car je connais ses souffrances. 8 Je suis donc intervenu pour le délivrer de la puissance égyptienne et pour le faire passer de cette contrée-là dans une contrée fertile et spacieuse,

midrash

je suis le D de ton père, cela nous apprend que D ‘sest devoile a moise sous l’apparence de son père amaram, pour qu’il n’est pas peur, et a ce moment la moise a ete contant, il s’est dit « mon père amram est encore vivant ! », D lui a dit je ne suis pas ton père, mais le D de ton père,

psikath zoutratah

d’abord l’ange s’est dévoila a avraham sous l’apparance de son père, pour ne pas lui faire peur, lorsque il a vu que moise se detouranait pour aller le voir, il lui a dit je suis le D de ton père, c’est a dire le fantôme du D de ton père.