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  • Writer's pictureRav Uriel Aviges

Makot Yerushalmi 4/4

Dans ce cours nous lisons et traduisons les mishnayot du dernier chapitre de makot et nous faisons le siyum.


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וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַלּוֹקִין, הַבָּא עַל אֲחוֹתוֹ, וְעַל אֲחוֹת אָבִיו, וְעַל אֲחוֹת אִמּוֹ, וְעַל אֲחוֹת אִשְׁתּוֹ, וְעַל אֵשֶׁת אָחִיו, וְעַל אֵשֶׁת אֲחִי אָבִיו, וְעַל הַנִּדָּה, אַלְמָנָה לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל, גְּרוּשָׁה וַחֲלוּצָה לְכֹהֵן הֶדְיוֹט, מַמְזֶרֶת וּנְתִינָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, בַּת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְנָתִין וּלְמַמְזֵר. אַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה, חַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ מִשּׁוּם שְׁנֵי שֵׁמוֹת. גְּרוּשָׁה וַחֲלוּצָה, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא מִשֵּׁם אֶחָד בִּלְבָד:

And these are liable to be flogged:One who had relations with his sister, or his father's sister, or his mother's sister, or his wife's sister, or his brother's wife, or his father's brother's wife, or a menstruant; A high priest who marries a widow, an ordinary priest who marries a divorcee or a halutzah; An Israelite who marries a mamzereth or natinah, or an Israelite woman who is married to a mamzer or a natin. In the case of a [woman who is both] a divorcee and a widow [a high priest] is liable on two counts. But in the case of a [woman who is both] a divorcee and a halutzah, an ordinary priest is liable only on one count.


הַטָּמֵא שֶׁאָכַל אֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ, וְהַבָּא אֶל הַמִּקְדָּשׁ טָמֵא, וְהָאוֹכֵל חֵלֶב, וְדָם, וְנוֹתָר, וּפִגּוּל, וְטָמֵא, הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְהַמַּעֲלֶה בַחוּץ, וְהָאוֹכֵל חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח, וְהָאוֹכֵל וְהָעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, וְהַמְפַטֵּם אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן, וְהַמְפַטֵּם אֶת הַקְּטֹרֶת, וְהַסָּךְ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה, וְהָאוֹכֵל נְבֵלוֹת וּטְרֵפוֹת, שְׁקָצִים וּרְמָשִׂים. אָכַל טֶבֶל וּמַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁלֹּא נִטְּלָה תְרוּמָתוֹ, וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁלֹּא נִפְדּוּ. כַּמָּה יֹאכַל מִן הַטֶּבֶל וִיהֵא חַיָּב, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר כָּל שֶׁהוּא, וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים כַּזַּיִת. אָמַר לָהֶם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, אֵין אַתֶּם מוֹדִים לִי בְּאוֹכֵל נְמָלָה כָּל שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא כִבְרִיָּתָהּ. אָמַר לָהֶן, אַף חִטָּה אַחַת כִּבְרִיָּתָהּ:

An unclean person who ate holy meat (Leviticus 7:20, 12:4); One who entered the sanctuary while unclean (Leviticus 12:4, Numbers 5:3, 19:13); One who ate forbidden fat or blood (Leviticus 3:16, 7:23-27); Or leftover sacrificial meats (Leviticus 19:6-8); Or sacrifices that had been offered up with improper intention (Leviticus 7:18); Or [an offering] that has became unclean (Leviticus 7:19); One who slaughters, or offers up a sacrifice, outside the Temple precincts (Leviticus 17:4); One who ate leavened [bread] during Passover (Exodus 12:15,; One who partakes of food [or drink] or does work on the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 23:27-31); One who puts together the ingredients for the [anointing] oil, or the ingredients for the incense, or anoints with the oil for anointing (Exodus 30:22-28): One who eats an animal that died a natural death (Deuteronomy 14:21); Or was improperly slaughtered (Exodus 22:30); Or any of the [creatures deemed] ‘abominable’ and ‘teeming’ (Leviticus 11:11,. One who eats non-tithed produce, or first-tithe from which heave offering has not been removed, or unredeemed second-tithe, or unredeemed sanctified property. How much untithed produce is one to eat to become liable? Rabbi Shimon says: “Any amount.” The Sages say: “An olive's size.” Rabbi Shimon said to them: “Do you not admit that if one ate the minutest ant that he would be liable? They said to him: “[Only] because it is a whole creature.” He said to them: “Even a grain of wheat is a whole entity.”


הָאוֹכֵל בִּכּוּרִים עַד שֶׁלֹּא קָרָא עֲלֵיהֶן, קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים חוּץ לַקְּלָעִים, קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי חוּץ לַחוֹמָה, הַשּׁוֹבֵר אֶת הַעֶצֶם בַּפֶּסַח הַטָּהוֹר, הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֶה אַרְבָּעִים. אֲבָל הַמּוֹתִיר בַּטָּהוֹר וְהַשּׁוֹבֵר בַּטָּמֵא, אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה אַרְבָּעִים:

One who eats of first fruits previous to the recital over them (Deut. 26:3-10); Of most holy things outside of the Temple curtains (Exodus 27:9); Of lesser holy things or of second tithe, outside the city wall (Deut. 12:17-18). One who breaks a bone of a ritually clean Passover offering receives forty [lashes] (Exodus 12:46); But one who leaves over a clean [Passover offering] (Exodus 12:10), or breaks a bone of an unclean [Passover offering], is not given forty [lashes].


הַנּוֹטֵל אֵם עַל הַבָּנִים, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לוֹקֶה וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּחַ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, מְשַׁלֵּחַ וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל מִצְוַת לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ קוּם עֲשֵׂה, אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ:

If one takes the mother bird with the young (Deuteronomy 22:6-7): Rabbi Judah says he is flogged and need not [then] send the mother free; But the Sages say: “He lets the mother go and is not flogged.” This is the general principle; any negative commandment which involves a positive deed, one is not liable (for transgressing over.


הַקּוֹרֵחַ קָרְחָה בְרֹאשׁוֹ, וְהַמַּקִּיף פְּאַת רֹאשׁוֹ, וְהַמַּשְׁחִית פְּאַת זְקָנוֹ, וְהַשּׂוֹרֵט שְׂרִיטָה אַחַת עַל הַמֵּת, חַיָּב. שָׂרַט שְׂרִיטָה אַחַת עַל חֲמִשָּׁה מֵתִים אוֹ חָמֵשׁ שְׂרִיטוֹת עַל מֵת אֶחָד, חַיָּב עַל כָּל אַחַת וְאֶחָת. עַל הָרֹאשׁ, שְׁתַּיִם, אַחַת מִכָּאן וְאַחַת מִכָּאן. עַל הַזָּקָן, שְׁתַּיִם מִכָּאן וּשְׁתַּיִם מִכָּאן וְאַחַת מִלְּמָטָּה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אִם נְטָלוֹ כֻלּוֹ כְאַחַת, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אֶחָת. וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיִּטְּלֶנּוּ בְתָעַר. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ לִקְּטוֹ בְמַלְקֵט אוֹ בִרְהִיטְנִי, חַיָּב:

If a man makes a baldness on his head, or rounds the corner of his head, or mars the corner of his beard, or makes one cutting [in his flesh] for the dead, he is liable [to a flogging]. If he makes one cutting for five dead, or five cuttings for one, he is liable for each one. On [rounding] the head [he is liable] for two corners, one for one side and one for the other; On [marring] the beard [he is liable] for two [corners] on one side, for two on the other side, and for one lower down. Rabbi Eliezer says: “If they were all taken off at the same time he is liable only on one count.” And he is only liable if he takes off with a razor; Rabbi Eliezer says: “Even if he picks off the hairs with tweezers, or with pincers, he is liable.


הַכּוֹתֵב כְּתֹבֶת קַעֲקַע, כָּתַב וְלֹא קִעֲקַע, קִעֲקַע וְלֹא כָתַב, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב, עַד שֶׁיִּכְתֹּב וִיקַעֲקֵעַ בִּדְיוֹ וּבִכְחֹל וּבְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא רוֹשֵׁם. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יְהוּדָה מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיִּכְתּוֹב שָׁם הַשֵּׁם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט) וּכְתֹבֶת קַעֲקַע לֹא תִתְּנוּ בָּכֶם אֲנִי ה':

He who writes an incision on his skin [is flogged]. If he writes [on his flesh] without incising, or incises without writing, he is not liable, until he writes and incises with ink, eye-paint or anything that lasts. Rabbi Shimon ben Judah says in the name of Rabbi Shimon: “He is not liable until he has written there the name [of a god], as it is says: “Nor shall you incise any marks on yourselves; I am the Lord” (Leviticus 19:28).


נָזִיר שֶׁהָיָה שׁוֹתֶה בַיַּיִן כָּל הַיּוֹם, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אֶחָת. אָמְרוּ לוֹ אַל תִּשְׁתֶּה אַל תִּשְׁתֶּה וְהוּא שׁוֹתֶה, חַיָּב עַל כָּל אַחַת וְאֶחָת:

If a nazirite has been drinking wine all day, he is liable for only one lashing. If they said to him, “Don’t drink wine”, “Don’t drink wine”, and he kept drinking, he is liable for each instance.


הָיָה מִטַּמֵּא לְמֵתִים כָּל הַיּוֹם, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אֶחָת. אָמְרוּ לוֹ אַל תִּטַּמֵּא, אַל תִּטַּמֵּא, וְהָיָה מִטַּמֵּא, חַיָּב עַל כָּל אַחַת וְאֶחָת. הָיָה מְגַלֵּחַ כָּל הַיּוֹם, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אֶחָת. אָמְרוּ לוֹ אַל תְּגַלֵּחַ אַל תְּגַלֵּחַ וְהוּא מְגַלֵּחַ, חַיָּב עַל כָּל אַחַת וְאֶחָת. הָיָה לָבוּשׁ בְּכִלְאַיִם כָּל הַיּוֹם, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אֶחָת. אָמְרוּ לוֹ אַל תִּלְבָּשׁ אַל תִּלְבָּשׁ וְהוּא פוֹשֵׁט וְלוֹבֵשׁ, חַיָּב עַל כָּל אַחַת וְאֶחָת:

If he has been defiling himself for the dead all day, he is liable for only one set of lashes. If they said to him, “Do not defile yourself! Do not defile yourself!” and he did defile himself [each time], he is liable on each instance. If he was shaving all day he is liable for only one set of lashes. If they said to him, “Do not shave, Do not shave” and he did shave [each time], he is liable on each instance. If he was wearing a garment of mixed linen and wool all day, he is liable for only one set of lashes. If they said to him, “Do not put it on! Do not put it on!” and he takes it off and puts it on, he is liable on each instance.


יֵשׁ חוֹרֵשׁ תֶּלֶם אֶחָד וְחַיָּב עָלָיו מִשּׁוּם שְׁמֹנָה לָאוִין, הַחוֹרֵשׁ בְּשׁוֹר וַחֲמוֹר, וְהֵן מֻקְדָּשִׁים, בְּכִלְאַיִם בַּכֶּרֶם, וּבַשְּׁבִיעִית, וְיוֹם טוֹב, וְכֹהֵן וְנָזִיר בְּבֵית הַטֻּמְאָה. חֲנַנְיָא בֶּן חֲכִינַאי אוֹמֵר, אַף הַלּוֹבֵשׁ כִּלְאָיִם. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אֵינוֹ הַשֵּׁם. אָמַר לָהֶם, אַף לֹא הַנָּזִיר הוּא הַשֵּׁם:

It is possible for one to plough one furrow and become liable for eight prohibited acts: If he ploughs with an ox and donkey [yoked together] (2+3) and these were sanctified [animals], [the plough being drawn over] diverse mixed-seed sown] in a vineyard, during the sabbatical year, on a festival-day, [the plower being] a priest and a nazirite and the plot being situated on a defiled area. Hanania ben Hakinai says: “He may also have been wearing a garment mixed of wool and linen.” They said too him: “This is not of the same category.” He said to them: “Even the nazirite is not in the same category.”


כַּמָּה מַלְקִין אוֹתוֹ, אַרְבָּעִים חָסֵר אַחַת. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כה) בְּמִסְפָּר אַרְבָּעִים, מִנְיָן שֶׁהוּא סָמוּךְ לְאַרְבָּעִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַרְבָּעִים שְׁלֵמוֹת הוּא לוֹקֶה. וְהֵיכָן הוּא לוֹקֶה אֶת הַיְתֵרָה, בֵּין כְּתֵפָיו:

How many lashes is he given? Forty save one, as it says, “By number forty” (Deuteronomy 25:2-3) which means, a number close to forty. Rabbi Judah says: “He is given forty [lashes] in full.” And where does he receive the additional lash? Between his shoulders.


אֵין אוֹמְדִין אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא בְמַכּוֹת הָרְאוּיוֹת לְהִשְׁתַּלֵּשׁ. אֲמָדוּהוּ לְקַבֵּל אַרְבָּעִים, לָקָה מִקְצָת וְאָמְרוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְקַבֵּל אַרְבָּעִים, פָּטוּר. אֲמָדוּהוּ לְקַבֵּל שְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה, מִשֶּׁלָּקָה אָמְרוּ שֶׁיָּכוֹל הוּא לְקַבֵּל אַרְבָּעִים, פָּטוּר. עָבַר עֲבֵרָה שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ שְׁנֵי לָאוִין, אֲמָדוּהוּ אֹמֶד אֶחָד, לוֹקֶה וּפָטוּר. וְאִם לָאו, לוֹקֶה וּמִתְרַפֵּא וְחוֹזֵר וְלוֹקֶה:

When they estimate the number of lashes he can stand it must be a number divisible by three. If they estimated him capable of receiving forty, and after receiving some they said he cannot receive forty, he is exempt [from the rest]. If they estimated him fit to receive eighteen, and after he was lashed they said he could receive forty, he is exempt [from the rest]. If he committed a transgression which violated two prohibitions and they made one estimate [for the lashes for both prohibitions], he is lashed and then exempt [from more]. And if [they had] not [made one estimate for both], he is lashed [for one transgression], is allowed to recover and then is lashed again.


כֵּיצַד מַלְקִין אוֹתוֹ, כּוֹפֵת שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו עַל הָעַמּוּד הֵילָךְ וְהֵילָךְ, וְחַזַּן הַכְּנֶסֶת אוֹחֵז בִּבְגָדָיו, אִם נִקְרְעוּ נִקְרָעוּ, וְאִם נִפְרְמוּ נִפְרָמוּ, עַד שֶׁהוּא מְגַלֶּה אֶת לִבּוֹ. וְהָאֶבֶן נְתוּנָה מֵאַחֲרָיו, חַזַּן הַכְּנֶסֶת עוֹמֵד עָלֶיהָ. וּרְצוּעָה שֶׁל עֵגֶל בְּיָדוֹ, כְּפוּלָה אֶחָד לִשְׁנַיִם וּשְׁנַיִם לְאַרְבָּעָה, וּשְׁתֵּי רְצוּעוֹת עוֹלוֹת וְיוֹרְדוֹת בָּהּ:

How do they lash him? His two hands are tied to a pillar on either side of it and the minister of the synagogue grabs his clothing, if they are torn, they are torn; if they are ripped open, they are ripped open, until he exposes the offender’s chest. And a stone is placed behind the offender, the minister of the synagogue stands on it, a strap of cowhide in his hands, doubled over into two, and redoubled, and two straps that rise and fall attached to it.


יָדָהּ טֶפַח וְרָחְבָּהּ טֶפַח, וְרֹאשָׁהּ מַגַּעַת עַל פִּי כְרֵסוֹ. וּמַכֶּה אוֹתוֹ שְׁלִישׁ מִלְּפָנָיו וּשְׁתֵּי יָדוֹת מִלְּאַחֲרָיו. וְאֵינוֹ מַכֶּה אוֹתוֹ לֹא עוֹמֵד וְלֹא יוֹשֵׁב אֶלָּא מֻטֶּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כה) וְהִפִּילוֹ הַשֹּׁפֵט. וְהַמַּכֶּה מַכֶּה בְיָדוֹ אַחַת בְּכָל כֹּחוֹ:

The handle is a handbreadth long and a handbreadth wide, its tip reaching to the edge of the [offender’s] abdomen. He administers one-third [of the lashes] in front and two-thirds behind. He lashes him not in a standing or sitting position but stooping, as it says, “And the judge shall cause him to fall [stoop] down” (Deut. 25:2). He who administers the lashes lashes with his one hand and with his whole force.


וְהַקּוֹרֵא קוֹרֵא (שם כח) אִם לֹא תִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת וְגוֹ' וְהִפְלָא ה' אֶת מַכֹּתְךָ וְאֵת מַכּוֹת וְגוֹ', וְחוֹזֵר לִתְחִלַּת הַמִּקְרָא (שם כט) וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית הַזֹּאת וְגוֹ', וְחוֹתֵם (תהלים עח) וְהוּא רַחוּם יְכַפֵּר עָוֹן וְגוֹ', וְחוֹזֵר לִתְחִלַּת הַמִּקְרָא. וְאִם מֵת תַּחַת יָדוֹ, פָּטוּר. הוֹסִיף לוֹ עוֹד רְצוּעָה אַחַת וָמֵת, הֲרֵי זֶה גוֹלֶה עַל יָדוֹ. נִתְקַלְקֵל בֵּין בְּרֶעִי בֵּין בְּמַיִם, פָּטוּר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הָאִישׁ בְּרֶעִי וְהָאִשָּׁה בְּמָיִם:

And the one who recites, says: “If you fail to observe faithfully all the terms of this Teaching…the Lord will inflict upon you extraordinary plagues (lashes)” (Deut. 25:58-59) And then (if time remains) he returns to the beginning of the section. [“Therefore observe faithfully all the terms of this covenant” (Deut. 28:9) and he completes by saying, “And He is merciful, forgiving iniquity” (Psalms 78:38).] If the offender dies under his hand, he is exempt [from penalty]. If he gave him one more lash and the offender died, he goes into banishment. If the offender befouled himself either with feces or urine, he is exempt. Rabbi Judah says: “Feces in the case of a man and [even] urine in the case of a woman.


כָּל חַיָּבֵי כְרֵתוֹת שֶׁלָּקוּ, נִפְטְרוּ יְדֵי כְרֵתָתָן, שֶׁנֶאֱמַר (דברים כה) וְנִקְלָה אָחִיךָ לְעֵינֶיךָ, כְּשֶׁלָּקָה הֲרֵי הוּא כְאָחִיךָ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי חֲנַנְיָא בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנַנְיָא בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, מָה אִם הָעוֹבֵר עֲבֵרָה אַחַת, נוֹטֵל נַפְשׁוֹ עָלֶיהָ, הָעוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה אַחַת, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה שֶׁתִּנָּתֵן לוֹ נַפְשׁוֹ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, מִמְּקוֹמוֹ הוּא לָמֵד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יח) וְנִכְרְתוּ הַנְּפָשׁוֹת הָעֹשֹׂת וְגוֹ', וְאוֹמֵר (שם) אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם. הָא, כָּל הַיּוֹשֵׁב וְלֹא עָבַר עֲבֵרָה, נוֹתְנִין לוֹ שָׂכָר כְּעוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בַּר רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר (דברים יב) רַק חֲזַק לְבִלְתִּי אֲכֹל הַדָּם כִּי הַדָּם הוּא הַנָּפֶשׁ וְגוֹ', וּמָה אִם הַדָּם שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם קָצָה מִמֶּנּוּ, הַפּוֹרֵשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ מְקַבֵּל שָׂכָר, גָּזֵל וַעֲרָיוֹת שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם מִתְאַוָּה לָהֶן וּמְחַמַּדְתָּן, הַפּוֹרֵשׁ מֵהֶן עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה שֶׁיִּזְכֶּה לוֹ וּלְדוֹרוֹתָיו וּלְדוֹרוֹת דּוֹרוֹתָיו עַד סוֹף כָּל הַדּוֹרוֹת:

All who have incurred [the penalty of] kareth, on being flogged are exempt from their punishment of kareth, for it says, “[He may be given up to forty lashes, but not more] ... lest your brother shall be dishonored before your eyes” (Deut. 25;3) once he has been lashed he is [considered] “your brother”, the words of Rabbi Hananiah ben Gamaliel. Rabbi Hananiah ben Gamaliel said: “Just as one who transgresses one transgression forfeits his life, how much more does one who performs one commandment have his life granted him.” Rabbi Shimon says: “You can learn this from its own passage; as it says: “[All who do any of those abhorrent things] such persons shall be cut off from their people”

(Lev. 18:29), and it says: “You shall keep my statutes and my ordinances which if a man do, he shall live by them” (Lev. 18:5), which means that one who desists from transgressing is granted reward like one who performs a precept. Rabbi Shimon bar Rabbi says: Behold [the Torah] says, “But makes sure that you do not partake of the blood; for the blood is the life, and you must not consume the life with the flesh…[that it may go well with you and with your descendents to come..” (Deut. 12:23-25”-- now, if in the case of blood which a person’s soul loathes, anyone who refrains from it receives reward, how much more so in regard to robbery and sexual sin for which a person’s soul craves and longs shall one who refrains from them acquire merit for himself and for generations and generations to come, to the end of all generations!


רַבִּי חֲנַנְיָא בֶּן עֲקַשְׁיָא אוֹמֵר, רָצָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְזַכּוֹת אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, לְפִיכָךְ הִרְבָּה לָהֶם תּוֹרָה וּמִצְוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה מב) יְיָ חָפֵץ לְמַעַן צִדְקוֹ יַגְדִּיל תּוֹרָה וְיַאְדִּיר:

Rabbi Hananiah ben Akashia says: “The Holy Blessed One, desired to make Israel worthy, therefore He gave them much Torah [to study] and many commandments [to perform]: for it is says, “The Lord desires [his servant’s] vindication, that he may magnify and glorify [His] teaching” (Isaiah 42).


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