• Rav Uriel Aviges

Chir HaChirim 13



Les documents

צְרוֹר הַמֹּר דּוֹדִי לִי, בֵּין שָׁדַי יָלִין

Mon bien-aimé est pour moi un bouquet de myrrhe, qui repose sur mon sein.


Rashi

צְרוֹר הַמֹּר דּוֹדִי לִי. דּוֹדִי נַעֲשָׂה לִי כְמִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ צְרוֹר הַמּוֹר בְּחֵיקוֹ, וְאָמַר לוֹ: הֲרֵי לְךָ צְרוֹר זֶה, שֶׁיִּתֵּן רֵיחַ טוֹב מִן הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁאִבַּדְתָּ. כָּךְ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נִתְרַצָּה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַל מַעֲשֵׂה הָעֵגֶל וּמָצָא לָהֶם כַּפָּרָה עַל עֲוֹנָם, וְאָמַר: "הִתְנַדְּבוּ לַמִּשְׁכָּן, וְיָבֹא זְהַב הַמִּשְׁכָּן וִיכַפֵּר עַל זְהַב הָעֵגֶל":

A bundle of myrrh is my beloved to me. My beloved has become to me as one who has a bundle of myrrh in his bosom, and he said to him, “Here, [take] this bundle, which will give a more fragrant aroma than the first one that you lost.” So, was the Holy One, Blessed Is He, appeased by Yisroel for the incident of the [golden] calf and found them an atonement for their iniquity and said, “Donate to the Tabernacle, and let the gold of the Tabernacle atone for the gold of the calf.”

בֵּין שָׁדַי יָלִין. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמָּעַלְתִּי בּוֹ, אָמַר לִשְׁכֹּן שָׁם:

Between my breasts he shall lie. Even though I betrayed Him, He said He would dwell there.49I.e., in the Tabernacle.

בֵּין שָׁדַי. בֵּין שְׁנֵי בַדֵּי הָאָרוֹן:

Between my breasts. Between the two staves of the Ark.50


Midrash lekah tov

צרור המור דודי לי. לשעבר אעפ"י שנרדי נתן ריחו מחל לו הקב"ה שנ' ויאמר י"י סלחתי מדבריך וצרר שכינתו ומצאה בין שני בדי ארון שנ' בין שדי ילין. כשם שהשדים בלועים בבגדה של נערה כן היו שני בדי ארון בולעין מן הפרוכת שנ' ויאריכו הבדים ולא יראו החוצה נראין ואינן נראין. בולטין כשני דדי אשה. וכתי' ונועדתי לך שם וגו'


Dans le passé, bien que mon parfum avait donné son odeur, D lui a pardonné, comme dit le verset “j ai pardone grace a ta priere” puis il a contraint sa chekhina entre les deux bâtons de l’arche et il est ecrit et je me presenterais a toi la bas..

Exode 25 22

וְנָתַתָּ אֶת-הַכַּפֹּרֶת עַל-הָאָרֹן, מִלְמָעְלָה; וְאֶל-הָאָרֹן--תִּתֵּן אֶת-הָעֵדֻת, אֲשֶׁר אֶתֵּן אֵלֶיךָ .כב וְנוֹעַדְתִּי לְךָ, שָׁם, וְדִבַּרְתִּי אִתְּךָ מֵעַל הַכַּפֹּרֶת מִבֵּין שְׁנֵי הַכְּרֻבִים, אֲשֶׁר עַל-אֲרוֹן הָעֵדֻת--אֵת כָּל-אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּה אוֹתְךָ, אֶל-בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל.

Tu placeras ce propitiatoire au-dessus de l'arche, après avoir déposé dans l'arche le Statut que je te donnerai. 22 C'est là que je te donnerai rendez-vous; c'est de dessus le propitiatoire, entre les deux chérubins placés sur l'arche du Statut, que je te communiquerai tous mes ordres pour les enfants d'Israël.

targum

בֵּהַהִיא זִמְנָא אֲמַר יְיָ לְמֹשֶׁה אִיזֵיל חוּת אֲרוּם חַבִּילוּ עַמָּךְ פְּסַק מִנִּי וַאֲשֵׁיצִנוּן בְּכֵן תָּב מֹשֶׁה וּבְעָא רַחֲמִין מִן קֳדָם יְיָ וּדְכַר יְיָ לְהוֹן עֲקִידַת

יִצְחָק דְּכַפְתֵּיהּ אֲבוּי בְּטוּר מוֹרִיָּה עַל מַדְבְּחָא וְתָב יְיָ מִן רוּגְזֵיהּ וְאַשְׁרִי שְׁכִינְתֵּיהּ בֵּינֵיהוֹן כְּמִלְּקַדְמִין:

Lorsque D a dit à moshe “va descend” par ce que ton peuple a faute, ainsi moshe a prié devant D et il s’est souvenu pour eux du ligotage d’Isaac, que son père avait attaché sur l’autel dans le mon Moria et pour cette raison il est revenue de sa colère et il a décidé de faire résider la chekhina comme au début …


בפרק הכל חיבים אמרו( חגיגה ה): רבי יוחנן כד הוה מטי להאי קרא הוה בכי, וקרבתי אליכם למשפט והייתי עד ממהר וגו', עבד ששוקלים עליו קלות כחמורות, תקנה יש לו? In the chapter "All are Liable" (Chagiga 5a): "When Rabbi Yochanan would come to this verse, he would weep - 'I will come near you to judgment and I will be a swift witness...' (Malachi 3:5) - a servant whose minor offenses are weighed just like major offenses, is there any remedy for him?

ובודאי שאין כונת המאמר שיהיה העונש על שתיהן אחד, כי הקדוש ברוך הוא אינו משלם אלא מדה כנגד מדה. אמנם הענין הוא, שלענין משקל המעשים כך עולות בכף הקלות כמו החמורות, כי לא ישכיחו החמורות את הקלות ולא יעלים הדיין עינו מהם כלל כאשר לא יעלים מהחמורות

Certainly the intent is not that the punishment is identical for both, for the Holy One blessed be He only pays back measure for measure. Rather, regarding the matter of weighing of deeds, the minor deeds are put on the scales just like the grave

ones. For the grave ones do not cause the minor ones to be forgotten, and the Judge will not overlook these at all just like he will not overlook the grave ones.

אלא על כולם ישגיח ויפקח בהשואה אחת, לדון כל אחד מהם ולהעניש אחר כך על כל אחד כפי מה שהוא, והוא מה ששלמה המלך עליו השלום אומר( קהלת יב): כי את כל מעשה האלקים יביא במשפט וגו', כי כאשר אין הקדוש ברוך הוא מניח מלשכוח כל מעשה טוב קטן כמות שהוא, כן לא יניח מלשפוט ולהוכיח כל מעשה רע קטן כמות שהוא

Rather on all of them, he will preside over and inspect equally, judging each one and meting out punishment afterwards on each and every one according to what it is. This is what Shlomo said: "For G-d will bring every deed into judgment, [with every hidden thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil]" (Kohelet 12:14). For just like the Holy One blessed be He does not leave any good deed unrewarded, small as it may be, so too He does not leave any bad deed unjudged and unpunished, small as it may be.

Talmud chabat 98

בִּשְׁלָמָא לְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה, הַיְינוּ דִּכְתִיב: ״חֲצִי הַיְרִיעָה הָעֹדֶפֶת תִּסְרַח״. אֶלָּא לְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, מַאי ״תִּסְרַח״? תִּסְרַח מֵחַבְרוֹתֶיהָ. תָּנָא דְּבֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל: לְמָה מִשְׁכָּן דּוֹמֶה — לְאִשָּׁה שֶׁמְהַלֶּכֶת בַּשּׁוּק וְשִׁפּוּלֶיהָ מְהַלְּכִין אַחֲרֶיהָ.

Granted, according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who maintains that the beams narrowed to a fingerbreadth, and therefore the top of the beams did not take up any of the width

of the curtains, which enabled the curtain to cover the entire wall of the Tabernacle with part of the curtain on the ground, it is understandable why it is written: “And as for the overhanging part that remained from the curtains of the tent, the half curtain that remained shall hang over the back of the Tabernacle” (Exodus 26:12). However, according to Rabbi Neḥemya, who maintains that it is necessary for the width of the curtains to cover the thickness at the top of the beams, what is the meaning of the phrase shall hang? The Gemara answers: It means that it will hang more than the others. In his opinion, this curtain is two cubits longer than the other curtains covering the Tabernacle. With regard to this, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: To what is the Tabernacle similar? It is similar to a woman walking in the marketplace with her skirts following after her.


Yomah 54

רב יהודה רמי כתיב( מלכים א ח, ח) ויראו ראשי הבדים וכתיב( מלכים א ח, ח) ולא יראו החוצה הא כיצד נראין ואין נראין תניא נמי הכי ויראו ראשי הבדים יכול לא יהו זזין ממקומן ת"ל ויאריכו הבדים יכול יהו מקרעין בפרוכת ויוצאין ת"ל ולא יראו החוצה

§ Rabbi Yehuda raised a contradiction. It is written: “The ends of the staves were seen,” and it is written in that same verse: “But they could not be seen without” (I Kings 8:8). How can one reconcile this contradiction? They were seen and yet not seen, i.e., the staves were partially visible. This was also taught

in a baraita: “The ends of the staves were seen”; one might have thought that they did not move from their position and did not protrude at all. Therefore, the verse states: “And the staves were so long.” One might have thought that they ripped through the curtain and emerged on the other side; therefore, the verse states: “They could not be seen without.”

הא כיצד דוחקין ובולטין ויוצאין בפרוכת ונראין כשני דדי אשה שנא' (שיר השירים א, יג) צרור המור דודי לי בין שדי ילין

How is this so? The staves of the Ark pushed and protruded and stuck out against the curtain toward the outside, and appeared like the two breasts of a woman pushing against her clothes. As it is stated: “My beloved is to me like a bundle of myrrh, that lies between my breasts” (Song of Songs 1:13). For this reason the Ark of the Covenant, where the Divine Presence rests, is positioned so that its staves protrude through the curtain, like the breasts of a woman.

אמר רב קטינא בשעה שהיו ישראל עולין לרגל מגללין להם את הפרוכת ומראין להם את הכרובים שהיו מעורים זה בזה ואומרים להן ראו חבתכם לפני המקום כחבת זכר ונקבה

Continuing the previous discussion, Rav Ketina said: When the Jewish people would ascend for one of the pilgrimage Festivals, the priests would roll up the curtain for them and show them the cherubs, which were clinging to one another, and say to them: See how you are beloved before God, like the love of a male and female. The two cherubs symbolize the Holy One, Blessed be He, and the Jewish people.

מתיב רב חסדא( במדבר ד, כ) ולא יבואו לראות כבלע את הקדש ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בשעת הכנסת כלים לנרתק שלהם

Rav Ḥisda raised an objection: How could the priests allow the people to see this? After all, it is stated with regard to the Tabernacle: “But they shall not go in to see the sacred objects as they are being covered, lest they die” (Numbers 4:20), and Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: When the vessels were put into their containers for transport, it was prohibited even for the Levites to look at them. The prohibition against viewing the vessels should be even more severe when they are fixed in their sacred place within the Temple. How could they be publicly displayed?

אמר רב נחמן משל לכלה כל זמן שהיא בבית אביה צנועה מבעלה כיון שבאתה לבית חמיה אינה צנועה מבעלה

Rav Naḥman said in answer: This is analogous to a bride; as long as she is engaged but still in her father’s house, she is modest in the presence of her husband. However, once she is married and comes to her father-in-law’s house to live with her husband, she is no longer modest in the presence of her husband. Likewise, in the wilderness, when the Divine Presence did not dwell in a permanent place, it was prohibited to see the sacred objects. By contrast, all were allowed to see the sacred objects in their permanent place in the Temple.

מתיב רב חנא בר רב קטינא מעשה בכהן אחד שהיה מתעסק וכו' אמר ליה נתגרשה קא אמרת נתגרשה חזרו לחיבתה הראשונה

Rav Ḥana bar Rav Ketina raised an objection from the aforementioned mishna: There was an incident involving a certain priest who was occupied and discovered the place where the Ark was hidden, and he subsequently died before he could reveal its location. Since he was prevented from seeing the Ark, it was evidently prohibited to see the sacred objects even after the Temple was built. Rav Naḥman said to him: This is not difficult, as you are speaking of when she was divorced. Since the Jewish people were exiled after the destruction of the First Temple, they are compared to a woman divorced from her husband, and when a woman is divorced she returns to her original beloved but reserved state. She is once again modest and does not reveal herself. Likewise, the Divine Presence will remain hidden until the glory of the First Temple is restored.

רב אחא בר יעקב אמר לעולם במקדש שני וכרובים דצורתא הוו קיימי דכתיב( מלכים א ו, כט) ואת כל קירות הבית מסב קלע( מלכים א ו, לה) כרובים ותמרות ופטורי ציצים וצפה זהב מישר על המחוקה

Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: Actually, Rav Ketina’s statement is referring to the Second Temple: There was a curtain at the entrance of the Holy of Holies, and indeed there were images of cherubs there, i.e., drawn or engraved pictures of the cherubs on the walls. As it is written: “And he carved all the walls of the house round about with carved figures of cherubs and palm trees and open flowers, within and without” (I Kings 6:29), and it is further stated: “And he overlaid them with gold fitted upon the graven work” (I Kings 6:35), which teaches that

in addition to the cherubs within the sacred place, other cherubs were drawn on the walls.

וכתיב( מלכים א ז, לו) כמער איש ולויות מאי כמער איש ולויות אמר רבה בר רב שילא And it is written: “According to the space of each with loyot” (I Kings 7:36). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: “According to the space of each with loyot”? Rabba bar Rav Sheila said:

54bנ״ד ב

כאיש המעורה בלוייה שלו אמר ריש לקיש בשעה שנכנסו נכרים להיכל ראו כרובים המעורין זה בזה הוציאון לשוק ואמרו ישראל הללו שברכתן ברכה וקללתן קללה יעסקו בדברים הללו מיד הזילום שנאמר( איכה א, ח) כל מכבדיה הזילוה כי ראו ערותה

It means like a man joined and clinging to his livaya, his partner, i.e., his wife. In other words, the cherubs appeared to be embracing one another. Reish Lakish said: When gentiles destroyed the Second Temple and entered the Sanctuary, they saw these drawings of cherubs clinging to one another. They peeled them from the wall, took them out to the market, and said: These Jews, whose blessing is a blessing and whose curse is a curse, due to their great fear of God, should they be occupied with such matters, making images of this kind? They immediately debased and destroyed them, as it is stated: “All who honored her debase her because they have seen her nakedness” (Lamentations 1:8).

Chabat 118b

אמר רבי יוסי מימי לא קריתי לאשתי אשתי ולשורי שורי אלא לאשתי ביתי ולשורי שדי

Furthermore, Rabbi Yosei said that he always spoke euphemistically: In all my days, I did not call my wife, my wife, nor my ox, my ox. Rather, I called my wife, my home, because she is the essence of the home, and my ox, my field, because it is the primary force in the fields.

אמר רבי יוסי מימי לא נסתכלתי במילה שלי איני והאמרו ליה לרבי מאי טעמא קראו לך רבינו הקדוש אמר להו מימי לא נסתכלתי במילה שלי ברבי מילתא אחריתי הוה ביה שלא הכניס ידו תחת אבנטו ואמר רבי יוסי מימי לא ראו קורות ביתי אימרי חלוקי

Rabbi Yosei said: In all my days, due to modesty, I never looked at my circumcision. The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn’t they say to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: Why did they call you our holy Rabbi? He said to them: It is because in all my days I never looked at my circumcision. If so, why wasn’t Rabbi Yosei also called our holy Rabbi? The Gemara replies: In the case of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, another matter of modesty was present in him, as he did not insert his hand below his belt due to his great modesty. And Rabbi Yosei said: In all my days, the walls of my house never saw the seams of my robe due to modesty, as he would only undress under his bed sheets

Berahot 10

יָנַק מִשְּׁדֵי אִמּוֹ וְנִסְתַּכֵּל בְּדַדֶּיהָ וְאָמַר שִׁירָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״בָּרְכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת ה׳ וְאַל תִּשְׁכְּחִי כָּל גְּמוּלָיו״.

He nursed from his mother’s breast, his third world, and he looked upon her bosom and said a song of praise, as it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul, and do not forget all His benefits [gemulav]” (Psalms 103:2). The etymological association is between gemulav and gemulei meḥalav, which means weaned from milk (Isaiah 28:9).

מַאי ״כָּל גְּמוּלָיו״. אָמַר רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ: שֶׁעָשָׂה לָהּ דַּדִּים בִּמְקוֹם בִּינָה.

We still must understand, however, what is meant by all His benefits? What in particular is praiseworthy in what God provided, beyond merely providing for the infant? Rabbi Abbahu said: In contrast with most other animals, God placed her breasts near her heart, the place that is the source of understanding.

טַעְמָא מַאי? אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה: כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִסְתַּכֵּל בִּמְקוֹם עֶרְוָה. רַב מַתְנָא אָמַר: כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִינַק מִמְּקוֹם הַטִּנּוֹפֶת.

What is the reason that God did this? Rav Yehuda said: So that the nursing child would not look upon the place of his mother’s nakedness. Rav Mattana said: So that the child would not nurse from a place of uncleanliness.

©2018 by Uriel Aviges.